Tajikistan is a mountainous country. 93% of its territory is surrounded by mountains, referring to the highest mountain systems of Central Asia: Tien-Shan and the Pamirs. Almost half of the territory of Tajikistan is situated at a height of more than 3000 m. The huge mountains are everywhere cut up by a rich network of gorges and canyons, through the bottom of which, the flows of mountain rivers storm. It should be noted out, that the mountains of Tajikistan arose in different epochs.
Kuramenian range and the mountains of Mogoltau are far north of the Republic, entering into structure of mountain constructions of the western Tien-Shan. Kuramenian mountain range stretches almost up to 170 km. The highest top (Boboiob, 3768 m.) is located in the northeast part of the mountain range. A small isolated ridge Mogoltau rises in the south-west from Kuramenian range, the height of which reaches up to 1623 m. and which is isolated by Mirzarabad passage and extends along the river Sirdarya on 40 km. Kuramenian range and the mountains of Mogoltau have the height of 320 to 500 m; the left shore part is between the river and the foot of Turkistan range, rising gradually to the south up to 1000 m.
Next is Fergana hollow. It is located between Chatkal and Kuramenian ranges and the mountains of Mogoltau, from the northwest between Turkistan and Alayski. The height of Fergana hollow changes from 320m in the islands and the rivers of Sirdarya and up to 800-1000 m. in the foothills surrounding the valley. To the west from Fergana hollow, there is the plain of Hungry steppe, the greatest part of which is located in Tajikistan. Its absolute height is 250-300 m.
Mountain ranges of Gissar-Allay occupies the central place in the territory of Tajikistan and refer to the south of Tien-Shan and include Turkistan, Zarafshan, Gissar, Karategin and Alay mountain ranges. It is surrounded by Fergana valley from the north, by Gissar, Surkhob and Alay River from south. The total extension of mountain ranges of this system from west to north is about 900 m.
Turkestan range stretches on 200 km. between Fergana and Zarafshan valleys. Reaching the great height in east part (peak Pyramidal, 5621 m), it gradually falls to north and ends by Nuratau range in Uzbekistan. The southern and northern slopes of Turkestan's range differ: southern is almost snowless (8-14 km); northern slope is longer and its snowy line passes at a height of 3500-4000 m. The glaciers are available only in eastern part of the range.
The most significant of them is Rama (20km). The roads, connecting Zarafshan and Fergana valleys, go through passes of Turkestan range, many of which are at a height up to 4000 m and are remote.
The greatest value among them has the Shakhristan pass (3351 m). A piece of range between Fandarya and Kshtut has received the name "Fanskiy mountain", which is distinguished by complexity of construction and a vast height (Chimtarga, 5495 m).
Gissar mountain range is separated from Zarafshan range, meanwhile forming watershed between the pools of Amudarya and Zarafshan. Its greatest height is in east and average parts (the peak, bearing the name of 22nd congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) – 4688 km, peak Kaznok-4491 m). Many passes go through Gissar range, the more important of which is Anzob pass (3372 m). Gissar valley (the length of which is about 100 km. and the width of which is from 1,5 km. up to 24 km.) extended at the foots of Gissar hollow. Vaksh valley is located on the South for 110 km. and under the width of 7 to 25 km.
The Pamirs occupies the east of Pamir mountain system. There stand out two regions: West-Pamir and East-Pamir. The border, that passes between them, connects the range Zulumart with Usoi's pile and the lake Yashilkul.
The short as meridian stretched range (108 km.) of the Academy of Sciences is considered the main body of Pamir's mountain system, an average height of which is 5757 m. The lowest pass Kamoloyak (4340 m) lies almost at the height of Monblan, the highest top of the Alps. The highest peak of the range is a peak of Ismoil Somoni (the former peak of Communism) reaches 7495 m. There go down several glaciers from the slopes of peak, merging with the glacier Garmo. In the north part of the mountain range, there tops the peak of E. Korzhenevskaya (7105 m). The West Pamir is characterized by uneven of its surface and the contrast of its height. Foot of the ranges lie at the height of 1700 – 1800 m. above sea-level and their tops rise to 6000 m. and higher. From the north, Pamir is surrounded by Zaalaiskii range (the length of which is 95 km). This high-mountain-wall rises above Alay valley. The highest road Pamir highway, connecting the town Osh with the center of GBAR-Khorog goes through the pass "Kezelart" at the height of 4280 m. In the east part of Pamir, there is located Sarecol range (the height of which is 5909 m), which is stretched along the state border with China. More about Pamir Mountains
Ak-su. Approximately 120 km to the south of Khujand is located fabulous mountain district Ak-Su which became famous due to the beauty of its untouched nature and unusual mounts. Some mountains stand over 5,000 meters tall. Ak-Su (5,355), Block (5,239), Iskander (5,120) and others are among them. These mountains are formed from dense granite with small ledges and cracks. At first they seem impossible to climb, but climbers easily clamber the rocky surfaces, conquering new tops. Beautiful accessible gorges and passes of the area create perfect conditions for trekking and horse-riding.