The most densely populated areas are the southern, eastern and north-eastern oases; the least populated are in the republic's west; in central desert areas there is only one person per several square kilometers.
The representatives of various nationalities live in Turkmenistan. The majority are certainly Turkmen (72%). In Turkmenistan there are big communities of Uzbeks (9%) and Kazakhs (2,5%). A significant part of the population are Russians (9,5%), and Russian-speaking people (about 7%). Among other nationalities are Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Persians, Lezghins, Uigurs a well as Beludzhi, Kurds etc.
Turkmen people are related to Trans-Caspian race of South Europeids. Turkmen are tall with oblong heads, narrow faces, high foreheads, relatively dark hair, eyes and complexion. Mongoloid facial features are negligible. Turkmenistan like other Central Asian states is distinguished by high birth rate; most families have many children.