Let's start with the fact with that Tajiks are a very ancient nation. Hence, the culture of this people is rather unique and originates somewhere in extreme antiquity. Tajiks have managed to preserve the traditions and customs of people who are the basis of the cultural life of the nation.
The cult structures and archaeological finds which testify about prosperous cultural development are related to the 6th - 5th centuries B.C. among those are the objects made of metal, stone, terracotta.
During the archaeological excavations near the city of Penjikent were found dwelling and cult structures, beautiful monumental paintings, sculptures which are related to the 7th - 8th centuries.
And what magnificent samples of architecture are the ancient mosques! Their wall paintings can be regarded as authentic pieces of art.
Tajiks always aspired to knowledge of the world. And this is reflected in their science, literature, art. Tajiks are especially protective in relation to their native language. For millennia they have carefully preserve it, passing it from generation to generation, like a kind of a relic, trying not to distort it borrowing something foreign. Arabian conquerors practically destroyed the original tongue of Tajiks - dari. However, Tajiks managed to return its original magnificence. The language sounded again in the masterpieces of Tajik classics: fiction, songs, scientific treatises, etc.
All this proves that Tajiks have always had special attitude toward culture, arts, beauty, aesthetics, and grace. They have been always educated nation with their peculiar vision of the world.
But the peak of cultural development of Tajik was during the period of Samanids rule (874-1005 AD), especially under Ismail Samani. It was the time when science, literature, astronomy, mathematics, natural sciences, philosophy prospered. Ismail Samani, being one of the most educated person,created favorable conditions for cultural boom. This time is still named « the Golden Age of Tajik civilization ». In the court of Ismail Samani were gathered the best scientists, writers, philosophers, poets, astronomers, painters, alchemists. The doors of the palace were always open for visitors bringing news of the latest developments in the world's culture.
The names of such talents as Ibn-Sino, Abu-Raikhan-Berunii, Al-Khorezmii, Imom Termezii, Farabi, Rudakii, Firdausi, Saadi, and Omar Khayyam are known worldwide. In fact they lived and created on territory of modern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Tajiks treat with respect the epoch when Tajik nation with its common language, territory and culture formed.
In 1999 the celebration of Samanid Dynasty 1,100 anniversary turned into a grandiose festival for the entire country. The celebrations, symposiums and international conferences took place not only in Tajikistan but also in many cities of the world.
Dushanbe in many respects is the cultural capital of the republic. There various international festivals of arts, music, dance, films, folklore and many other are held.
The modern cultural life of Tajikistan cannot be described without the State Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Aini, Tajik Drama Theatre named after Lakhuti, Russian Drama Theatre, the Academy of Sciences, state universities, historical museums, museums of fine arts, botanical gardens and other cultural institutions.