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Tashkent History

History of Tashkent - the capital of Uzbekistan

Tashkent. Early 20th centuryTashkent is the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan and one of the most ancient cities appeared on the Great Silk Road from China to Europe. First information about Tashkent, as a settlement, was in the ancient eastern sources in the second century BC. In China sources it was called Yuni; in the inscription of the Persian king Shapur I the Tashkent oasis was called as Chach; in the transcriptions of some China sources the city also was called Shi, and the Arabs called it Shash. According to Beruniy and Mahmud Kashgariy, the name Tashkent appeared in the Turkic sources of 9-12 centuries. In Russia in the 15th century it was known as Tashkura.

As far as in the ancient times the advantageous geographical location and favorable climate made Tashkent one of the main points on the Great Silk Road. As an evidence of it Uzbekistan archeologists found remains of the ancient settlement of Shashtepa, located in the southern part of modern Tashkent and irrigated by the Jun channel. They discovered ruins of defensive walls and remains of mud brick buildings. Outside defensive wall of the citadel included underground corridor and was designed with tower ledges, which were built under all fortification standards of that time. The main square of the old part of the city, Chorsu Square, appeared in the 9th century. Trade Roads led to Chorsu Bazaar from all gates and gradually transformed into shopping streets. This square was the traffic and trade center.

Tashkent. Early 20th centuryLater Chorsu square was reconstructed and now has the new appearance. The Kukildosh Madrassah was built on the square in the 16th century. Also it includes the Department Store, the Central Pharmacy, Chorsu Hotel and other modern constructions. Mahallyas (residential quarters), surrounding the square and shopping streets, were named after craftsmen and people, who lived there. For example, the Padarkush Mahallya in the Shaykhantaur district was called earlier “Buzchi Mahallya”, which means “the district of weavers” (now it is the micro-district C-13). There were other mahallyas close to Chorsu square: Arka-Kucha on the north, Dukchi, Zandjirlik on the south, Pushtibag on the west, Kudukbashi on the east. Deroz Mahallya got its name from “Degroz”-“district of foundry men”. It included 20 cast-iron workshops. Ahunguzar Mahallya in the Sebzar district meant “the district of blasksmiths” and included a great number of blacksmith’s workshops. Tokli Jallob Mahallya got its name due to cattle-traders.

Tashkent chiming clockSince Tashkent was the city of rich merchants and craftsmen, the major part of buildings were mainly caravanserais, mosques, and mausoleums. The earliest buildings that reached our time are mausoleums built along the caravan roads. They were erected in honor of saint sheikhs. These  monuments of Tashkent history were not only the places of worship, begging and trading, but also the original landscape, decorating a long boring way through desert roads. Totally in Tashkent and along the routes, leading to the capital there are about ten mausoleums preserved to this day.


Alay Bazaar
Amir Timur Museum
Amir Timur Square
Anbar-bibi mausoleum
Archeological monuments
Art Gallery NBU
Barak-khan Madrasah
Botanical Garden
Bowling Alleys
Catholic Church
Center of Applied Arts
Centre of National Arts
Chapel near the Kamolon gates
Charvak reservoir
Chorsu Bazaar
Exhibition Hall
German Kirche
Hodjikent petroglyphs
Independence Square
International Caravanserai of Culture
Islamic Institute
Juma Mosque
Kaffal-Shashi mausoleum
Karakiyasay petroglyphs
Kukeldash Madrasah
Museum of Applied Art
Museum of Art
Museum of Geology
Museum of History of Uzbekistan
Museum of Railway Technics
Museum of Victims of Political Repression
Photos of Old Tashkent
Restaurants and Cafes
Romanov Palace
St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral
Swimming Pools
Tamara Khanum Museum
Tashkent Airport
Tashkent History
Tashkent Metro
Tashkent Museums
Tashkent Photogallery
Tashkent Railway Station
Tashkent theatres
Tashkent Zoo
The Old City
Tillya Sheikh Mosque
TV Tower
Ural Tansykbaev Memorial Museum
Yunus-khan Mausoleum
Zangiata mausoleum
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