Yuachmun Fortress, Pamir
Located near the city of Khorog, the capital of Gorno Badakshan, is Ishkashim village. In its vicinities you can see the well preserved walls of Yuachmun and Kaakha Fortresses.
In the end of the 1st millennium B.C. because of the threat of military attacks from neighbors as well as for the purpose of controlling the traffic of people and cargos from Pamir to Bactria, India, Iran and back the construction of powerful fortifications began. The first of them was Yuachmun Fortress (also known as Kafyr Kala). The fortress was constructed in the 3rd century B.C. on the slope of the rock which was favorably during its construction. If seen from above the fortress has a triangular form divided into three parts. The first is the citadel with a bastion and barracks. They were walled and reinforced by towers. Two other parts are extensive platforms for conducting military actions. Each platform is surrounded with powerful walls reinforced by 36 towers with loopholes.
The fortress walls are double, made from carefully processed tiled stones delivered by builders from different remote places. The outer 2 m-thick wall was made entirely from stones. The inner wall is also from stones which are only 50-60 cm thick.
The entire fortress "is connected" by means of towers with embrasures cut in chessboard order and inclined downwards under a small angle so that the warriors could cover with their fire the entire valley. Some loopholes are directed both outside, and inside of the fortress which considerably increased its defensibility. The fortress amazes with its size. This powerful military structure had an exclusive significance for the local territory.