Music and dances - Tajikistan
Tajik national songs are single-voiced, as a rule. Some of them can be slow and sad, others - cheerful and dynamic (at festivals). There is great variety of Tajik musical instruments. The most interesting among the stringed ones are - dutor, rhubab and tanbur; bow - gidzhak and violin; wind - nai, karnai, surnai; cymbal-like - chang; percussion - tablak (clay kettle-drum), doira (tamburine), kairok (stone castanets).
Tajik traditional dances are divided into several styles: Pamir, mountain‚ Bukhara‚ Southern (Khatlon areas)‚ Hissar valley‚ Northern Tajikistan. Each of them is distinguished by costumes‚ movements‚ manners characteristic for the population of these regions.
Tajik dances were born before the early Middle Ages. They were integral part of everyday life and accompanied all significant events‚ births‚ family holidays, etc.
Tajik traditional dances are divided into the following kinds: pantomime dance (the most ancient) which is based on imitation of animals and birds, ceremonial dance - rakskhoi marosimi, dance beside death bed - poiamal (preserved in Pamir). Among the ritual dances the popular ones are such as "gilem" - a carpet‚ "boft" - weaving‚ "oshpaz" - the cook, etc. Men's dances are frequently aggressive. The movements are sharp, dynamic, swift in order to symbolise power and force (shamsherbozi - the dance with swords‚ kordbozi - the dance with a knife‚ otashbozi - with fire). Men's and women’s dances with a musical instrument. Raks bo dutor (the dance with a dutar)‚ raks bo doira (the dance with a tamburine)‚ raks bo gizhak (the dance with a gidzhak); the dances with other obbjects (a jug‚ a spoon‚ a dish‚ an axe, etc.) are among them.
Tajiks used to stage the entire dance-based dramatized performances. For example, aspakbozi - the dance with a horse, ushtur - the dance of a camel caravan, kishtibozi - the dance with a boat. These traditional dances include the elements of pantomime, drama and circus. The traditional dances are integral part of spectacular performances in Tajikistan.