Alexander I

The epoch of Alexander I was distinguished by a number of liberal reforms, which weakened the serfdom traditions. Russia’s elementary education became free. Under Alexander I Dagestan and North Azerbaijan joined Russia.

Russia waged a lot of wars. The wars with Turkey (1806 – 1812) and Sweden (1808 – 1809) were victorious resulting in annexation of Finland (1809) and Bessarabia (1812). By 1812 the war with France, which dreamed about world’s dominance, became inevitable. At the head of his multi-thousand army Napoleon headed for Moscow on June 12, 1812. The Russian army was under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov. The crucial battle took place near the village of Borodino. Although the losses borne by Russian army were not as significant as French’s, Kutuzov issued the order to abandon Moscow without resistance. Having stayed in Moscow for less than a month, Napoleon realized that he had been entrapped. Napoleon left for France. In October 1813 near Leipzig Napoleon’s army was defeated. In March 1814 Russian troops headed by Alexander I entered Paris. The war was over. By the order of Vienna Congress significant part of Poland along with Warsaw was annexed to Russia.