Peter I the Great
When Peter turned 17 he organized the coup and became the monocratic tzar (1689 - 1725). Peter I realized the necessity of the reforms in the country. He sent his Grand Embassy, in which he took part under the false name, abroad. There he obtained useful diplomatic ties. In 1695 – 1696 Peter the Great took the Turkish fortress of Azov. The victory provided Russia with the access the Azov Sea. During Peter’s reign Russia entered the alliance with Poland and Denmark against Sweden. It was the beginning of the Great Northern War (1700 – 1721) after which Russia obtained the access to the Baltic Sea and became the great power. During the course of the Great Northern War Peter reorganized the Russian military system in conformity with the best European examples, introduced artillery, started the system of military education, issued the order to build military factories based on Western models. On 16 May
7003 he ordered to build the new Russian capital, St. Petersburg, on the banks of the Neva River. St. Petersburg became the symbol of new Russia and its imperial power. The new Russia was ruled by “ The Father of the Homeland” - a monarch with an absolute power. The Senate proclaimed Peter the Emperor of all Russia for his deeds in 1721 and Russia was proclaimed the Empire.